QUADERNI EUROPEI SUL NUOVO WELFARE

Il pensionamento flessibile in Europa

5. Conclusioni

La flessibilità al pensionamento presenta diversi vantaggi. Permette, infatti, di adattare regole universali di un sistema pensionistico alla vasta casistica di esperienze e preferenze individuali riguardo ai percorsi lavorativi e famigliari. Inoltre, dal punto di vista dello Stato, può essere uno strumento per migliorare la sostenibilità finanziaria del sistema attraverso l’innalzamento dell’età effettiva di pensionamento. Tuttavia è necessario che il sistema contenga gli incentivi appropriati, incoraggiando carriere lavorative più lunghe e disincentivando uscite precoci dal mercato lavoro. Tali incentivi non devono essere troppo elevati — pena un eccessivo peso sul bilancio del sistema — né troppo lievi, col rischio di risultare inefficaci, ma devono piuttosto ispirarsi a principi di neutralità attuariale. Inoltre, per quanto la flessibilità sia un valore in se stessa, essa deve essere opportunamente limitata, per non mettere a rischio l’adeguatezza dei benefici pensionistici individuali. La flessibilità al pensionamento può essere messa in pratica in vari modi strettamente legati tra loro, cioè sia attraverso la possibilità di scegliere l’età di collocamento a riposo — con le relative correzioni attuariali dei benefici — sia grazie alla facoltà di raggiungere gradualmente la cessazione completa dell’attività lavorativa attraverso schemi di pensionamento parziale. In alcuni casi ci sono ancora ostacoli alla piena realizzazione dell’ideale di flessibilità, soprattutto nel caso del pensionamento parziale. Affinché la flessibilità sul piano pensionistico sia non solo attraente per tutte le parti coinvolte (Stato, imprese e lavoratori) ma anche efficace, è necessario che l’organizzazione del lavoro sia sufficientemente flessibile, soprattutto nel consentire rapporti di lavoro a tempo parziale ai lavoratori anziani. Infine, anche i vincoli imposti, per esempio legati all’assunzione di nuovo personale, ne rendono meno appetibile l’adozione da parte delle imprese.

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